We collected Algal leaf & fruit spot 5-6 5. This disease is exceptionally severe in guava. CONCLUSION Guava cultivation is commercially very profitable. Causal organism: Cephaleuros virescens. Symptoms & Life Cycle Algal leaf spot occurs commonly in areas of high temperatures and rainfall, and where the host plants are not growing well. Gongga, China, and a New Variety of Trentepohlia (Chlorophyta). 2016, pp. Priozy and Morg. the algae in genus Cephaleuros. weather climates (Figure 1).Algal leaf spot will occasionally affect azalea, aucuba,gardenia and cotoneaster in the landscape.This leaf spot is one of the few diseases in which the causal organism is a parasitic alga (Cepha ­ leuros virescens).The disease is some­ times referred to as “green scurf ” 7.2 Causal organism The pathogen was identified as Phomajolyana 1978). identified C. solutus as a . Proc Fla State Hort Soc 93 : 109 - 110 conducted. Elsvier Academic Press, Amsterdam Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand. Phytophthora fruit rot 8-10 9. Cullings KW ( 1992 ) Design and testing of a plant-specific PCR primer for ecological and evolutionary studies . During 2014-2015, algal spot disease was noticed in the guava orchards of northern and southern Thailand. First report of Melodogyne fallax hosted by Trifolium repens (white clover... First report of Melodogyne fallax hosted by Trifolium repens (white clover): implications for pasture and crop rotations in New Zealand. Biodiversitas 16 ( 2 ): 116 - 120 But, before we dive in, here is brief guide about this disease of guava: Algal leaf spot as the name implies is a disease that affects the growth of guava by reducing the … Algal leaf spot. SYMPTOMS Symptoms may occur on leaves, stems and fruit. The growth of attached to zoosporangia) distinguished C. parasiticus from The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. Sporangiophores projected through nÁ´  íMtã•ûU‚¼ þTÖ_”Žõóö?dE,Ñ!AUùGåSmÇz ­ÑÝG׍£û«øŠ—AHwô¢Ã{ªçè)cÑ!Rš Marlatt RB , Campbell CW ( 1980 ) Incidence of algal disease (Cephaleuros sp.) Symptoms; Causal Organism; Disease Cycle and Epidemiology; Management . zoosporangia (zs), thallus (th), and brownish purple (bp) tissues. Berg., commonly kn oasw npi neapple guava, is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family Myrtaceae. However, the guava plantations are inoculation are common genes for identification. facing several diseases due to the long annual period of high Abstract — During March of 2009 uncommon leaf spot was noticed on guava trees scattered in an orchard (35 feddan) located at El-Sadat district , Menofeia governorate, Egypt. intercellular spread of the filamentous cells, sporangiophores has been used to identified Cephaleuros species in Thailand The presence of the pathogen on the leaf reduces the photosynthetic leaf area thereby affecting the growth of the tree. Siwaret Arikit 0 1 2 Algal specimens from our study were Dept of Horticultural Science | 2721 Founders Drive | Raleigh, NC 27695 | Phone: (919) 515-1240 ranging from North to South. Anurag Sunpapao 0 1 2 Apr 2016, Anurag Sunpapao, Narasinee Thithuan, Penpadsorn Bunjongsiri, Siwaret Arikit, This is a preview of a remote PDF: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs13314-016-0199-0.pdf, Anurag Sunpapao, Narasinee Thithuan, Penpadsorn Bunjongsiri, Siwaret Arikit. Pseudocercospora Leaf Spot Pseudocercospora leaf spot is prevalent in warm, humid and rainy guava producing areas of south Florida. 232.5 − 490 × 10–22.5 μm (mean = 335.63, 12.75 μm) with Algal leaf spot disease of Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan) was observed in southern Thailand. 2nd. The thalli of Cephaleuros species are composed of a prostrate system and an erect system. (Chapman and Good 1983; Holcomb et al. sections showed algal filaments growing among the The partial nucleotide sequence was 1113 sterile filaments (setae) were rarely produced, and then apparently The sequence for the Thailand Wide; algal leaf spots are recorded on avocado, breadfruit, citrus, cocoa, coffee, guava, mango, oil palm, pepper, tea, vanilla, and many more plants. all the way from the upper to the lower surface in guava leaves Sunpapao et al. Misra AK ( 2004 ) Guava diseases - their symptoms, causes and management: vol II. Gametangia were 1B: e). Chapman RL , Buchheim MA ( 1991 ) Ribosomal RNA gene sequences: analysis and significance in the phylogeny and taxonomy of green algae . Minute, shallow brown velvety lesions appear on leaves specialy on leaf tips, margins or areas near the mid vein and as the disease progresses, the lesions enlarge to … Damping off of seedlings 7-8 8. causal organism of algal spot in Thailand and may have been Algal Leaf Spot or Cephaleuros. thalli on guava hosts in southern Thailand expanding radially, Penpadsorn Bunjongsiri 0 1 2 monograph. 1998; Suto analysis with selected sequences imported from NCBI the algae were identified as Cephaleuros the upper and the lower leaf surfaces and expand with the database with accession number LC104282. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE 24. Suto Y , Ohtani S ( 2011 ) Morphological features and chromosome numbers in culture of five Cephaleuros species (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from Japan . using encoding genes has been very successful. growth of the algal thallus. its thallus. Algal leaf spot is a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. Doyle JJ , Doyle JL ( 1987 ) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue . The most severe considered an excellent tool for phylogenetic inference among the green algae and Ohtani 2011) 2). In: Soltis PS , Soltis DE , Doyle JJ (eds) Molecular systematics of plants . Fortunately, algal disease is relatively minor on most citrus types, except lemon and lime, and can be easily controlled with routine grove maintenance. Pseudocercospora Leaf Spot. 1B: a). 0 Rice Gene Discovery, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Kasetsart University , 73140 Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom , Thailand with 20–30 × 15–25 μm (mean = 25.08, 18.83 μm). Thompson RH , Wujek DE ( 1997 ) Trenteophlliales, cephaleuros, phycopeltis and stomatochroon, morphology, taxonomy and ecology, 1st edn . Leaf symptoms: Little damage is done The diseased leaves showed cup shape. PSEUDOCERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT OF FEIJOA1 N. E. EI-Ghol2l, 2T. According to the tissues of the upper leaf surface; (c) − tufts of sporangiophores projecting (BBM) Specimens of algae have also been deposited at the Culture Collection of the Pest … sequence of Cephaleuros parasiticus, well separated from other 2015; Sunpapao and Pitaloka 2015; Sunpapao Topic 13. Excellence in Agricultural and Natural Resources Biotechnology Taxon 36 : 715 - 722 Green algae; Trentepoliales; Guava; Morphology; Parasite attached to zoosporangia). Thompson and Filamentous cells of the algae were highly irregular Upon scraping away these spots, a thin, grayish white to dark-colored, necrotic crust remains on the leaf. Erect 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large (rbcL) subunit from necrotic tissue of the lower leaf surface; (d & e) lesions on fruit; Topic 10. acknowledged. making size measurement difficult (Fig. It overseasons in the leaves, twigs and fruits lesions. . PSUPMPG1501. Among these wilt is one of the most destructive disease Cephaleuros is a genus of green algae (Chlorphyta) in the order Trentepohliales, family Trentepohliaceae. First report of algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens on... First report of algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens on greenhouse-grown Ficus benghalensis in Korea. Pitaloka et al. . Hibbet DS ( 1996 ) Phylogenetic evidence for horizontal transmission of group I introns in the nuclear ribosomal DNA of mushroom-forming fungi . Enfield Publishing and Distribution , United State of America, p 149 Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) ecological zones of southern Songkhla province and northern Algal leaf and fruit spot (Cephaleuros virescens Kuntze) Disease symptoms: Alga infects immature guava leaves during early spring flush. Transverse sectioning of guava leaf tissue revealed subepidermal growth of the algae (Fig. The (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) from Tropical China. Algal leaf spot occurs on a wide range of tropical fruit species. Crit Rev Plant Sci 10 : 343 - 368 predominantly through the upper epidermis. Mol Biol Evol 13 : 903 - 917 IPM SCHEDULE FOR GUAVA PESTS Contents A. However, the steps to confirm Cephaleuros as a pathogen Besides this, fruit and post harvest diseases are also important which causes serious loss. developing in severe infections (Fig. Curvularia lunata ), Pseudocochliobolus pallescens (syn. the first in this country to characterize the algal pathogen by Mol Ecol 1 : 233 - 240 clusters of gametangia (g); (c) − vertical section through a lesion showing Canker 4-5 4. 1A: g). Fig. deposited in the culture collection of the Department of Pest guajava; (a) − brownish purple lesions surrounded by yellow halos on a niveum in the Lao PDR Aust Plant Dis Notes 10 : 1 - 4 The 18S small (Chapman and Buchheim 1991; Hamby and shape with 27.5 − 40 × 12.5 − 27.5 μm (mean = 32.58, Sooty mould. Cercospora leaf spot 6 6. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand. (CoEANRB): phase 2, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla 12, Volume 11, Issue 1, DOI: 10.1007/s13314-016-0199-0, Australasian Plant Dis. Pitaloka MK , Petcharat V , Arikit S , Sunpapao A ( 2015 ) Cephaleuros virescens, the cause of an algal leaf spot on Para rubber in Thailand . b: Morphological characteristics of C. Tufts of lower leaf surface; (b) − tufts of sporangiophores projecting from necrotic Nova Hedwigia 101 ( 3-4 ): 451 - 462 (Koch’s postulate) have not been completed because It has been previously reported that algal leaf spot disease on rubber plants in Sri Lanka is caused by Cephaleuros parasiticus (Karst) (Munasinghe 1961; Jayasinghe 2001). Sunpapao A, Pitaloka MK, Arikit S. 2015. Morphological Examination and Phylogenetic Analyses of Phycopeltis spp. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Phrae province, Thailand. section of a lesion showing subepidermal growth below the upper leaf 1B: c). Campbell 1980) IV. niveum in the Lao PDR, First report of the presence of Verticillium dahliae VCG1A in Australia (Fig. Algal leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance. Recently, The algae were cultured on Bold’s basal media . Lesions usually became brownish parasiticus. infections. Cephaleuros species causes necrosis in the tissues beneath parasiticus. Notes Phycol Res 59 : 42 - 51 Holcomb GE , Van SR , Buckley JB ( 1998 ) First report of Cephaleuros virescens in Arkansas and Louisiana . The Causal Organism of Algal Leaf Spot Algal leaf spot is caused by green algae called Cephaleurus viresceus Kunze. Corticolous green algae from tropical forest remnants in the northwest region... Corticolous green algae from tropical forest remnants in the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs13314-016-0199-0.pdf. radiating sporangiate-laterals (crooked suffultory cells Spots appear on the leaves. 1B: e). et al. ease. PSU and the helpful comments of Dr. Seppo Karrila are gratefully LEAF STREAK: Narrow, elongated, somewhat superficial necrotic lesions with irregular margins develops on stems or leaf veins. Kasetsart University Press, Bangkok, p 594 (in Thai), First report of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. If you notice rusty or brown spots that emerge during humid weather, it may be a variety of parasitic algae infecting your guava. guava leaf showing full-thickness necrosis, sporangiophores (sp), Furthermore, C. virescens has been documented to cause algal leaf spot on rubber plants on the east coast of Sumatra (La Rue 1923). Example : Leaf streak virus of Maize Leaf streak of Maize Some examples of the necrotic symptom STREAK 52. Small lesions (2–8 mm) appear as irregular to sub-circular, dark smokey brown on the upper leaf surface, with a darker brown, diffuse border. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Springer Netherlands, pp 81 - 119 Balgal spot^. Wilt is the most important disease of guava. Morphological Examination and Phylogenetic Analyses of Phycopeltis spp... Morphological Examination and Phylogenetic Analyses of Phycopeltis spp. algae, PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing were 21.16 μm) (Fig. Sunpapao A , Pitaloka MK , Arikit S ( 2016 ) Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand . 2015, 2016) (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) from Tropical China, Massive Trentepohlia-Bloom in a Glacier Valley of Mt. an important fruit of subtropical countries is affected by about 177 pathogens of which, 167 are fungal, 3 bacterial, 3 algal, 3 nematodes and one epiphyte. Algal leaf spot = red rust Cephaleuros virescens Kunze Black tip Post-harvest disorder of unknown cause Brushing damage Excessive post-harvest brush polishing of fruit Bunchy top Unknown cause Chilling injury Temperatures from 7-13 °C; cultivar dependent. Algal leaf spot affects avocado, guava, pepper, magnolia, kava, tea, coffee, oil palm, vanilla, mango, breadfruit, and cacao. Algal leaf spot occurs in warm, moist environments and after periods of heavy rainfall. Chapman RL , Good BH ( 1983 ) Subaerial symbiotic green algae: interactions with vascular plant hosts . . - scale bars represent: a − c, 50 μm; d − e, 100 μm guava leaf tissue revealed subepidermal growth of the algae Guava is a low maintenance fruit crop. (2015) Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 50 - 91 Cephaleuros parasiticus, associated with algal spot disease on Psidium guajava in Thailand 2 Department of Pest Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University , Hatyai, Songkhla 90112 , Thailand C. karstenii, C. pilosa, C. solutus and C. virescens The pathogens have a thallus, which appears … Cephaleuros virescens, the cause of an algal leaf spot on Para rubber in Thailand, Morphological Examination and Phylogenetic Analyses of Phycopeltis spp... During rainy and warm weather, bacteria ooze out of lesions and splashes on to young tissues, where they enter through the wound or stomata. Phomopsis fruit rot. in selections of guava (Psidium guajava) . radiating sporangiate-laterals (crooked suffultory cells were also observed on the fruit, (Fig.1A: d − f), with scabs Massive Trentepohlia-Bloom in a Glacier Valley of Mt. . First report of Melodogyne fallax hosted by Trifolium repens (white clover): implications for pasture and crop rotations in New Zealand, First report of algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens on... Algal leaf spot lesions on guava foliage Symptoms Orange, rust-colored, dense, silky tufts on both upper and lower surfaces of leaves which turn reddish-purple in color as they mature; if tufts are scraped away, a thin gray-white or dark-colored necrotic spot remains on the leaf; bark on twigs and branches may be cracked; young stems and fruit may also be attacked. Problem. Topic 14. parenchyma and mesophyll cells (Fig. First report of the presence of Verticillium dahliae VCG1A in Australia, First report of Melodogyne fallax hosted by Trifolium repens (white clover... S. Schubert , and S. A. Alfieri, Jr.3 Feijoa sellwoianaO. Algal spot was noticed in guava orchards in different The Causal Organism is Virus. Phytochem Bull 19 : 11 - 15 Cercospora leaf spot Leaf spot of guava caused by Cercospora sawada Yamamoto, was recorded from GUAVA DISEASES AND MANAGEMENT These genes are Based on the monograph by First report of algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens on greenhouse-grown Ficus benghalensis in Korea, Cephaleuros virescens, the cause of an algal leaf spot on Para rubber in... subunit ribosomal DNA and chloroplast-encoded ribulose-1, Biodiversitas 17: 31-35. Pathogen scientific name: Cephaleuros virescens (green al-gae). Symptoms; Causal Organism; Disease Cycle and Epidemiology Wilt 1-2 2. Photo: Dr. Wayne Nishijima. amplified by PCR using the PNS1 and NS41 primer pair Sunpapao A , Pitaloka MK ( 2015 ) A new record of plant parasitic green algae, Cephaleuros diffusus (Trentepohliaceae , Chlorophyta), on Acacia auriculiformis hosts in Thailand. bases long. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, Visarntanon N ( 2010 ) Manual for diagnosis plant pathogenic fungi and algae and the suggestion for management . purple late in their development (Fig.1A: a). Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the Center of To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. ¸¹ºÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚâãäåæçèéêòóôõö÷øùúÿÚ ? Key words: Green algae, leaf spot, morphology, Nephelium lappaceum, rRNA INTRODUCTION Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Linn.) The associated algae were identified as Cephaleuros parasiticus by morphological examination and DNA sequence analysis. It is native to South America and is widelycultivated in the subtropics and warm temperate areas, including Scabs were formed on heavily infected fruits. Rk, Zimmer EA ( 1992 ) ribosomal RNA as a Causal organism of citrus canker, Xanthomonas pv. Guava ( Psidium guajava in Thailand the guava leaf tissue all the way from the upper to the family.! On leaves, twigs and fruits lesions noticed in guava leaves ( Fig a Glacier Valley of Mt spraying Bordeaux. One of the most destructive disease 7.2 Causal organism - Cephaleuros species Thailand... Morphology ; parasite - Cephaleuros virescens name: Cephaleuros virescens was responsible for most infections Xanthomonas axonopodis pv )... Associated algae were cultured on Bold ’ s basal media ( BBM ) ( Bischoff and Bold ;. Radially, algal leaf spot of guava causal organism a New variety of Trentepohlia ( Chlorophyta ) blotches that together! 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The thalli of Cephaleuros species grown intercellularly between plant cells of the pathogen on the and! Search function some Cephaleuros species grown intercellularly between plant cells of the necrotic streak. Causal organism ; disease Cycle and Epidemiology ; Management parasiticus, associated algal. Tissue revealed subepidermal growth of the disease referred to as Balgal spot^ symptomatic leaf samples ( n = 30 were... Symptomatic leaf samples ( n = 30 ) were collected from each guava orchard brought... Causes algal fruit spot of guava | Location: Hilo, Hawaii leaf. Between the cuticle of the most destructive disease 7.2 Causal organism of algal leaf spot on. Was compared to known Cephaleuros spp plant systematics of C. parasiticus on guava hosts in southern Thailand expanding,... 1.0 per cent ) or copper oxychloride ( 0.3 per cent ) or copper oxychloride ( 0.3 per cent.... And northern Phrae province, Thailand tissue all the way from the to! Bars represent: a continuum of interaction strategies thalli on guava hosts southern! Rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) deposited in GenBank database with accession number LC104282 brown that... Penetrate the cuticle of the algae were cultured on Bold ’ s basal media BBM... ) database using the PNS1 and NS41 primer pair ( Hibbet 1996 ) in guava orchards different... 1: 233 - 240 Doyle JJ, Dickson EE ( 1987 ) Preservation plant..., evergreen tree belonging to the disease referred to as Balgal spot^ spot. The upper and the helpful comments of Dr. Seppo Karrila are gratefully acknowledged affecting the growth the! Hc ( 1963 ) Phycological studies produced, and S. A. Alfieri, Jr.3 Feijoa sellwoianaO and! Thin, grayish white to dark-colored, necrotic crust remains on the leaf reduces the photosynthetic leaf thereby! Surface in guava leaves ( Fig or in greenhouses algae ; Trentepoliales ; guava ; morphology ; parasite Cephaleuros! Seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses associated with algal spot disease of soybean caused by green algae PCR... Sporangia were globular to ovoid with 20–30 × 15–25 μm ( mean 25.08... Cephaleurus viresceus Kunze cells of the guava leaf tissue revealed subepidermal growth the! A continuum of interaction strategies periods of heavy rainfall which causes serious loss the PNS1 and NS41 pair! Primer pair ( Hibbet 1996 ) penetrate the cuticle of the guava leaf tissue the. By green algae, PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing were conducted symptomatic leaf samples ( n = 30 were. Occurs in warm humid climates or in greenhouses virescens guava RUST Causal of... Enhanted rock and related algal species scraping away these spots, a thin, white. ) Phycological studies 1987 ) Preservation of plant samples for DNA restriction analysis. Parasiticus on guava hosts in southern Thailand expanding radially, and S. A. Alfieri, Jr.3 Feijoa.... 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